With its harmonized classification under the CLP-Regulation as reprotoxic cat. 1B – may damage fertility, may damage the unborn child, n-propylbromide (nPB) meets the criteria to be a substance of very high concern (SVHC) and thus was included in the authorization list (Annex XIV) of the REACH-Regulation in June 2017.

Since July 2020, nPB is only allowed to be used if the user has a granted authorization. The use of nPB is therefore limited to special application for which the user has proven that no suitable alternative exists.

Brief profile: Brief Profile - ECHA (europa.eu)


Several solvents which are used in industrial parts cleaning operations, including prior and after heat treatment processes, are currently filed under Risk Evaluation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

There are various other regulations which affect industrial cleaning applications, such as The Clean Air Act including NESHAP, The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act or The Clean Water Act. Nevertheless, the scope of this article is limited to TSCA only as this is a regulation which is applied all over the US without further break-down of state individual adoptions. However, SAFECHEM recommends readers also taking into account state specific regulation. There are very strict regulations in certain states like California which are further limiting the use of certain chemistries (e.g. on Ground Water Protection).

Under TSCA, the Risk Evaluation Process is the second step, following Prioritization and before Risk Management. The purpose is to determine whether a chemical substance presents an unreasonable risk to health or the environment, under the conditions of use, including an unreasonable risk to a relevant potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulation. As part of this process, the EPA must evaluate both hazard and exposure, exclude consideration of costs or other non-risk factors, use scientific information and approaches in a manner that is consistent with the requirements in TSCA for the best available science, and ensure decisions are based on the weight-of-scientific-evidence.

Currently, all kind of brominated and chlorinated solvents are under review. This includes the use of N-propylbromide (nPB), Trichloroethylene (TRIC), Perchloroethylene (PERC) and Methylene Chloride/Dichloromethane (DCM) but also trans-Dichloroethylene (t-DCE).

The EPA released a final revised risk evaluation on nPB in December 2022 and found unreasonable risks to workers, occupational non-users, consumers, and bystanders in 23 out of 25 conditions of use.

The EPA will develop ways to address the unreasonable risks identified and consider public comments when devising risk management measures. There are several actions the EPA could take to address the unreasonable risk, including regulations prohibiting or limiting the manufacture (including import), processing, distribution in the marketplace, commercial use, or disposal of this chemical substance, as applicable. The EPA is currently in the process of drafting a proposed rule to regulate nPB so that it no longer presents an unreasonable risk to health. 

SAFECHEM will closely monitor the process and will inform as soon as new information is available.

For additional information please visit:

Final Risk Evaluation: Final Risk Evaluation for 1-Bromopropane (1-BP) | US EPA
Risk Management: Risk Management for 1-Bromopropane (1-BP) | US EPA



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